Evernia vulpina syn. Letharia vulpina
family: Lichen (Parmeliaceae)
heóvaoha (Petter 1915: 824b, 418), "yellow-dyeing"
heóvotse (Tallbull 1993: 20), "getting yellow quickly" ?
mé'hasetoóéve ? (Hart 1981: 3); maybe "hairy-leave-cool-liquid- it's", it could refer to the cold yellow decoction in which quills are soaked
Wolf lichen (wolf moss, tree moss) is one of the most staring lichens. It has 1 to 12 cm long, densely branched, frilly, yellow or bright yellow-green thalluses. In dry conditions, they are yellow-green to rich yellow-ochre. They contain poison acid. Wold lichen grows on trunks and branches. It is more abundant on boundaries of forests where it has more light. In North America, wolf lichen ranges in the area of the Rocky Mountains, from British Columbia to California and Colorado. It ranges in Europe too, including the Czech Republic.
The Cheyenne boiled this lichen and obtained rich yellow dye for dyeing porcupine quills. When the water became cold the quills was placed into the yellow water and leaved in it for a day at least (Grinnell 1923 II: 169). On the present, the Cheyenne don’t use wolf lichen for dyeing and they forgot its usage (Tallbull 1993: 20).
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